I will post a second, related article shortly.
Notes On Historical Canaan
By Raymond Towers
These are notes left over from my research into the land of Canaan. I gathered this information while I was writing my novel The World Changers, which is an epic fantasy and metaphysical story that starts off in our modern world, and ends up in an alternate reality during the time of ancient Canaan.
A brief history of Ancient Canaan and Egypt:
The Hyksos people ruled Egypt until Pharaoh Ahmose I expulsed them. The Hyksos then crossed the Reed Sea and went to live in southern Canaan. Later, Egypt came in and conquered this area, while the Hurrians came in from the north. In time, the Hittites went on to conquer the Hurrians and controlled Ugarit. Their capital was called Hattusha. Trunisa (later known as Troy) lay to the west end of Canaan. The Hittites tried to expand their empire south. They came up against and were defeated by Egypt. As a result, famine, plague and war broke out among the now divided and weakened city-states.
The Philistines went on to conquer the five southern city-states. Tribes called the Hibiru revolted against the Philistines and destroyed these city-states, but eventually the Philistines were able to defeat them. These Hibiru were the remnants of the original Hyksos from Egypt, but you might recognize them better by their later name, the Hebrew.
War was prevalent in Canaan. The city-states that remained in the south asked Egypt for help, but they were refused. Eventually, the Hibiru conquered most of the south, save for Sidon, Gubla, and Tyre. The Hibiru were farmers and shepherds, villagers really, as opposed to the Canaanites who built cities to dwell in. Both peoples spoke similar languages and worshiped similar pantheons of gods.
That’s the generally accepted history; here is the perspective of it. Of paramount importance here is the idea that history is written by the victors. The Hyksos – Hibiru – Hebrews won in the end, and they later became the Jews in the time of Classical Greece. Most likely, these people were Negroes, or at least mix of Arab and Negro, like all the other Canaanite tribes were. When they were the Hyksos, Egypt kicked them out of their land. The Jews never forgave Egypt for this and that’s why they always stick it to Egypt in the Bible. Repeatedly, the Israelites humbled Egypt, its gods, its laws and its Pharaohs, and the Bible will state how the god of Israel freed his people from slavery and crushed the armies of Egypt. This never happened. There is no Egyptian record of a mass exodus that took place from Egypt. Plain and simple, they got their butts kicked, and they’ve been sore about it ever since.
There are other examples of similar resentment found all over the Old Testament. One of the first is the fable of Cain and Able, where the bull god El found favor in Abel’s offering over Cain’s. Cain kills Abel, and as a punishment he is exiled and goes on to found great cities and peoples, while Adam and Eve founded villages of farmers and shepherds.
The story of Cain and Abel is allegory for shepherds and farmers. Why? Because both of these groups competed for the same fertile land. Recall that as the Hyksos, these people were kicked out of Egypt and had to resettle in Canaan. The problem is that Canaan was already occupied by the city-states, and those cities had already taken the best spots for agriculture and livestock. The Hyksos had to keep moving east, closer to the mountains, where fertile land was scarcer. Thus, you had farmers and shepherds in constant conflict with one another. The shepherds won, by the way, as there are numerous accounts of Israelite shepherds found in the Old Testament, and up until the time of the alleged birth of Jesus, when an angel of the lord appeared before a group of shepherds. Jesus was also described as a shepherd for the people of Israel. (Luke 2:8-9, Matthew 2:6) In essence, the Hyksos were nomadic warrior shepherds, just like some tribes in the Middle East are in our present day.
So, the Hyksos – Hibiru were pissed off because they were in the mountains, or at least on the western edge of the mountains. These were poor people, and they were probably wealthy if they had twenty or thirty goats or sheep or cows or whatever. I don’t believe the wealthiest Hibiru had thousands of heads of livestock and were very wealthy, like the Bible sometimes states, simply because there wasn’t enough land for all sorts of animals to exist on. Historically, wealthy people don’t travel around from one place to another all the time following their herds, like the Bible describes. They tend to stay in place and establish themselves around good land and access to water.
Here is another parallel to our modern times. When you have a small town full of poor farmers, and their kids start growing up and seeing that their entire lives will be spent in these poor farms, what happens? When the kids are old enough, they flee to the cities and try to make their fortunes there. This is what happened to the Hibiru. All of their young adults were leaving their tribes and heading into the city-states. This angered the hardliners of the various tribes into action. They united together and became the tribes of Israel. They promoted the idea that their god El was better than everybody else’s gods. They started attacking the city-states in groups, or loose armies, destroying the cities and pillaging in the name of El. They needed workers, so they enslaved their captives. They needed young men, so they encouraged their warriors to take multiple wives to bear children with, with the primary wife being Hibiru while any secondary wives could come from anywhere. Since they wanted to keep their wealth and property, the elders made it hereditary to the male instead of the traditional female. They prohibited their men from consorting with ‘foreign’ women, who were really women from Canaan just as the Hibiru were now from Canaan. If they gained too many captives from the city-states they pillaged, they probably massacred them like the Bible says they did. Usually, during these ancient times conquering tribes absorbed the people they conquered, along with their gods and customs. The Hibiru were different in that they were intent on keeping their bloodlines and their culture from being diluted with the city-states they fought against. Hence, El became a god of outright murder in the name of genetic purity.
The ultimate slap in the face occurred when the Hibiru that fled into the cities took their goddess with them. This was Asherah, the wife / consort of El. In effect, she was divorcing El and shacking up with a new god, Baal of Ugarit. There is absolutely no doubt that Asherah was the wife of El, and older versions of the Bible still mention this goddess by name. By the way, Ashtoreth (Canaan), Astarte (Greece), Aphrodite (Greece), Venus (Rome) and Asherah may have all derived from the original Babylonian Ishtar. In a covert manner, we still celebrate her today during the time of her original holiday at the Spring Equinox, which we now call Easter. The Bible verses below are from the New Living Translation.
Judges 2:13 – They abandoned the Lord to serve Baal and the images of Ashtoreth
Judges 3:7 – … they worshiped the images of Baal and the Asherah poles.
Judges 6:25 – Put down your father’s altar to Baal, and cut down the Asherah pole standing beside it.
The previous verses establish Asherah / Ashtoreth being a consort of Baal, who the people of Israel were constantly flocking to worship. Let’s see if we can find mention of Asherah when she was hooked up with El.
Deuteronomy 16:21 – You must never set up an Asherah pole beside the altar of the Lord your God.
Exodus 34:13 – … smash the sacred pillars they worship, and cut down their carved images. (In this case, these carved wooden images were originally termed Asherim or multiple Asherah.)
There is your connection. El was a bull god, representing fertility, which shepherds and farmers such as the Hebrew nomads worshiped according to the Old Testament. This is why the Israelites molded a calf of gold in Exodus 32:4. Note that the name of the god isn’t mentioned. This name was intentionally omitted when the Bible was put together in Rome, in the 4th Century CE. I contend that the name of this golden calf was probably El or Baal. Further, Baal was a bull god, representing fertility. Both of these gods were depicted as having the horns of a bull. Add to that Asherah, a goddess of fertility who was depicted with bullhorns as well. Asherah, the mother goddess was taken away from El, a father or patriarchal god, and mated to Baal, a patriarchal god who succeeded El.
When you see an image of the Devil with horns on his head, these horns were originally bullhorns. They came from El in the Old Testament and from Baal in Ugarit. When you see the crowd at a rock concert throwing up the Devil sign, or an Illuminati / Mason doing the same thing, they are using an ancient hand sign that originally stood for the bullhorns of El and / or Baal. It’s all connected because all of these tribes of people lived and worked around each other, and so they shared and evolved ideas among themselves. Anybody that claims their dogma appeared isolated and all of a sudden is full of shit, when the truth is that their ideas were culled together from ideas and dogmas that came from somewhere else before them.
Graffiti from two sites in 8th Century Israel, BCE – I bless you by Yahweh… and by his Asherah.
There is some debate regarding the graffiti. Does this mean Yahweh and his goddess, or Yahweh and his sacred pole? Have you ever heard of Yahweh having a sacred pole? From previous examples, we can credibly speculate that Asherah and carved wooden poles, or totems, are interchangeable, so neither interpretation is really wrong. The debate is pointless; whether it was a goddess or a pole is moot, because the Israelites were worshiping something other than Yahweh at that time, when according to Christianity and Judaism they were supposed to be monotheistic back then. You might need more Bible verses to cement the connection between Asherah and El / Yahweh. Here you go:
Judges 6:28, 30, 1st Kings 14:15, 14:23, 15:13, 16:33, 2nd Kings 13:6, 17:10, 16, 18:4, 21:3, 7, 23:6, 14, 23:15, also parallels in 2nd Chronicles
These verses show that there was intense competition in Israel and Judah between Baal, Asherah and Yahweh. In some of these instances, the sacred pole of Asherah was erected right next to the altar of Yahweh. As I mentioned earlier, history is written by the victors. From my sources, I’ve gathered that while all this was sometimes tolerated and sometimes frowned upon in 900-800 BCE, the male clergy of Judaism decided once and for all to get rid of god’s wife between 500 and 400 BCE. This is when they started erasing all mention of her name from history, by destroying documents and defacing monuments. (If you don’t think this is possible, the Catholic Church did the same thing during the European Renaissance, when they destroyed the image of the Black Jesus and replaced it with the image of Leonardo Da Vinci’s gay lover, Cesare Borgio.) To finish up, Bible verses and outside evidence point to Asherah as being the wife of El / Yahweh, to her image being placed next to El’s altar, to sacrifices being made to her in El’s temple, and to her functionaries making garments for her and putting them on her statues.
Search your Bible for the god Baal, and you will see that plenty of times, the god El scolded and attacked the Israelites for worshiping Baal. This further emphasizes my theory that the Hibiru hated losing their people to the city-states and as result weakened their own standing and population numbers. Also, many characters in the Bible have Baal as part of their name, which means that Israelites were as much into Baal as they were into Yahweh. For comparison, see how the word El was added to names such as Michael, Gabriel and Samuel.
Below is a list of major city-states in Canaan, followed by the name of their primary god:
City – Ammon, God – Melok
City – Carchemish, God – Kubaba
City – Edom, God – Quash
City – Gubla, God – Adon
City – Jebus, God – Zedug
City – Jericho, God – Yarikh
City – Joab, God – Chemos
City – Palasht, God – Dagon
City – Sidon, God – Astart
City – Tyre, God – Melqart
City – Ugarit, God – Baal
(Some notes: El and Baal both translate as god or lord, both were represented as bulls and were gods of fertility. Dagon, half man and half fish, was the god of the Philistines. Some texts refer to Dagon as the father of Baal, while others speculate that El was the father of Baal. Dagon can also be found in Early Babylon. In some instances, the goddess Ashera is not only Baal’s wife, but also his mother. This is paralleled in the equally incestuous relationship of the Egyptian Isis, Osiris and Horus, and in other religions as well.)
The names of the known tribes of Northern Canaan:
Arkadite, Arkite, Hamathite, Sidonian, Sinite, Zemanite
The names of the known tribes of Southern Canaan:
Amorite, Canaanite, Girgashite, Hittite, Hivite, Jebusite, Perizzite
Here is the full list of sources I used for my novel, from both articles and books. There are 28 of them, to give you an idea of how much research I put into some of my projects:
Ancient Near East Texts – James Pritchard
Ancient Near East Religion And The Monotheistic Religion Of Moses – Carlos Araque
Ancient Religions – Sarah Johnston
Ancient Sun Worship And Its Impact On Christianity – A.T. Jones
Ancient Ugarit – unknown
Asherah – James Newell, Studylight.org
Asherah – Jewish Women’s Archive
Asherah – Queen Of Heaven blog
Asherah, Known As The Lady Of The Sea – Northernway.org
Asherah, The Lord God’s Lady? – Biblioteca Pleyades
Canaan History And Religion – Answers.com
Canaan, Phoenicia, Sidon – B. Tsirkin
Canaanite Religion – Trudy Tannen, Maricopa.edu
Canaanite Religion – Wikipedia
Canaanite Religion And Alphabet – History-World.org
Canaanite / Ugaritic Mythology – Comcast.net
Egyptians, Canaanites And Philistines – Itamar Singer
Flora And Fauna Of Syria – Travel The Unknown
Gods Of Canaan – Biblical Heritage
History And Religion Of Canaan – Holman Dictionary
Pagan Religion In Canaan – unknown
The Baal Cycle – Phoenicia.org
The Lost Goddess Of Israel – Archeology.org
The Religion Of The Canaanites – Theology.edu
Ugarit – Come To Syria
Ugarit Myths, Epics And Legends – H.L. Ginsberg
What The El Is Ugarit Doing In The Newspaper? – Lethbridge Herald
Yahweh, Thy Maker Is Thine Husband – Biblioteca Pleyades